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Full text of "Mathura A District Memoir"

MATH OR A.
CHAPTER L
THE MOBKEN DISTRICT; ITS CONFORMATION, EXTENT AND DIVISIONS AT DIF-
FSEENT PERIODS. THE CHARACTEB OF THE tJEOPLJS AOT THE1B LANGUAGE.
THE PEBDOMIHANT CASTES | THE fXTS AKP THEIR OBIQIN; THE CHAU-
BBS | THE AHIVlSIS; TOT HAUEUA THJtaTBS. THE JAINIS AND THEIB
TEMPLES* THE FBtfClPAl FAMILIES; THE SBTHj THB BjfrA OF HJfrHBAS;
TH® BXis OF SA'D/BJ&>.   AGBICULTOSAL CLASSIFICATIOK OF LAND; CAH-
ALS | FAMINES ; THE DELHI BOAD AHD ITS SABLES.
THE modern district of Mathnra is one of the five which together make up the
Agra Division of the North West Provinces. It has an area of 1,453 square
miles, with a population of 671,690, the vast majority of whom, tri*., 611,$2S,
are Hindu®.
In the year 1803, when its area was first included in British territory, part
of it was administered from Agra and part from Sa'd&had. TM& arrangement
continued till 1&32, when iihe city of M&thuri was recognized as the most fitting
centre of local government and, superseding the village of Sa'd&had, gave its
name to a new district, comprising eight tahsflis, m#., Aring? Sahar^ and "Komf
on the light bank of the Jamnna; and on the left, Mat, ffoh-jhil, Hahaban,
Sa'daMd, and Jalesar. In I860, Hit and Noh-jhii were united, with the former
as the head-quarters of the Tahsildar; and in 1868 the revenue offices at Aring
ww transferred to Hathmra, but the general boundaries remained unchanged.
The district, however, as thus constituted, was of a most inconvenient shape.
Its outline was that of a carpenter's square, of which the two parallelograms
were nearly equal in extent; the upper one lying drie north and south, while
the other at right angles to it stretched due eastward below. The capital, situ-
ated at the interior angle of junction, was more accessible from the contiguous
district of Aligarh and the independent" State of Bhaxat-pnr than from the
greater part of its own territory. The Jalesar pargana was the most remote
of all; its two chief towns, Awa and Jalesar, being respectively 55 and 4B
miles from the local Courts, a greater distance than separated them from the
capitals of four other districts.